WATCH: ISIS Beheading Executions & Praising Of Nice Terror
The Spanish masturbation expert Fran Sanchez Oria argues: "Masturbating for great sexual health… can increase your testosterone levels, specially when combined with ejaculation edging. I could probably make another post just on this, but in a nutshell if you masturbate until you are close to climax then stop, and repeat several times, your testosterone levels will build up significantly." Caught with his pants down, Fran Sanchez Oria (subsequently removed the page, but a printscreen is here and here.
Washington, District of Columbia: Most popular cosmetic procedures of 2016 and demand for designer vagina
THE most popular plastic surgery of 2016 has been revealed by surgeons including the rising demand for a designer vagina.
New data released by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) shows there were 17.1million surgical and minimally-invasive cosmetic procedures in the US last year.
Overall surgical cosmetic procedures rose by four per cent when compared to the minimally invasive ones, which grew at the slightly lower rate of three per cent.
1. Of the 1.8million cosmetic surgeries topping the list were breast jobs with 290,467 procedures, up four per cent from 2015.
2. In second place was liposuction, up six per cent from the previous year with 235,247 recorded.
3. A nose job was third, rising two per cent from 2015 with 290,467 surgeries.
4. Next was eyelid surgery with 209,020 people going under the knife, also up two per cent.
5. And lastly facelifts saw a four per cent rise from 2015 with 131,106 recorded jobs.
For the remaining non-surgical treatments, the most popular was botox with seven million procedures recorded, up four per cent.
Second with 2.6m procedures was soft tissue fillers, up two per cent.
Next was a chemical peel, also up two per cent from 2015 with 1.36m performed.
Laser hair removal was fourth with 1.1m, which had dipped one per cent from 2015.
In fifth place was microdermabrasion, which was down 3 per cent with 775,000 procedures.
And for the first time statistics were released for labiaplasty, which has soared in popularity.
Last year 12,000 procedures were carried out, a whopping 39 per cent increase from 2015, when the ASPS began tracking the surgery.
The plastic surgery entails lifting and / or injecting fat or a filler into the area.
ASPS President Debra Johnson, MD, said: “As cosmetic procedures become more common we are seeing more diversity in the areas of the body that patients are choosing to address.
“Now patients have ongoing relationships with their plastic surgeons and feel more comfortable discussing all areas of their body that they may be interested in rejuvenating."
The ASPS also identified new fat trends ranging from body fat reduction to harvesting fat and transporting it to other parts of the body.
Dr Johnson said: "One trend we are seeing with fat involves an increase in fat grafting procedures.
“Plastic surgeons harvest a patient's unwanted fat from their abdomen using liposuction and then inject it to lift and rejuvenate other areas such as the face, buttock and even the breast.
"Because the material injected is the patient's own fat the results typically last longer than fillers."
Statistics show minimally invasive cosmetic fat injections increased by 13 per cent, fat grafting to the buttocks rose 26 per cent, but topping the trend was breast augmentation using fat which rose a whopping 72 per cent.
And non-invasive procedures were also on the rise, including skin tightening and fat reduction.
Injections targeting specific pockets of fat, such as under the chin, rose by 18 per cent.
Fat ‘freeze’ technology increased by five per cent, and skin tightening targeting saggy areas also jumped five per cent.
Dr. Johnson added: "These newer, non-invasive procedures appeal to a broad range of patients.
“Even though they aren't surgeries, patients still need to take these procedures seriously."
The once most popular procedure, the face lift, has enjoyed a resurgence last year after dipping slightly in 2015.
Dr. Johnson said: "Patients are captivated by instant improvements to the face. It's evident in the popularity of apps and filters that change how we can shape and shade our faces.
“I am not surprised to see facelifts back in the top five most popular cosmetic surgical procedures."
Boston, Massachusetts: Indecent sexual affair in the offices of the Socialist Party in Albania
The discovery of the suspected pedophile Agron Cane, former brigadier commander
Agron Cane, a former 61 year old military officer and brigadier commander, had been part of the Socialist Party for a while. He worked at the office of MP Kokedhima in Saranda, where he used to take note of the demands coming from the citizens, mainly for jobs and complaints and he also filled the necessary documents to help them.
One of the persons who also sought help at the office of the Socialist Party was O.G, a widow, mother of four children, who suffered constant poverty in Saranda. Since the month of March, she was trying to find a job, but the secretary of the socialist MP didn’t consent to this if she didn’t offer him a sexual favor. The situation escalated when the unscrupulous official asked her to offer him his 14 year old daughter for sexual relations. He demanded to take the virginity off the young girl and engage in an orgy along with her mother in bed. The woman said that she was very upset by this, but she didn’t trust police and this is why she didn’t demand help there. A few days ago, while the situation was aggravating, she addressed to a local journalist. This marked the start of a series of registrations which revealed for the public other ugly aspects of officials who deal with the problems of the citizens.
It’s easily discerned by the conversation that the woman has had sexual relations with the pervert, but forced to do so. But, Cane was now asking for more, an orgy with the child. An outrageous part where Cane claims that next year he would run for the mayor of Saranda was this one: “I, you and the girl will all three be in bed. Under your guidance, she will be your student. So, phone her, as I’m looking forward to her. I’m obsessed by your daughter. Her friends have done this before her. I can assure you on this. She will be relieved because she has many hormones. The girl needs sex. I’m not a maniac, as I have a wife at home. I like good things and I take pleasure on doing this. I don’t want to say a lot, but if I’m elector mayor, your daughter will have a future”.
State Police reacted by arresting the suspect, Agron Cane, married, father of two children.
Kokedhima condemns the “maniac act”
The socialist MP, Kokedhima reacted after the event and said that “the ugly act and implication of Agron Cane in this story is strongly condemned”.
“We distance ourselves from such ugly perverse acts”, said Kokedhima.
In the press statement, the MP also published for the first time, the full identity of the woman who became an object of abuse in the office of the SP. Media and police had kept her name discreet.
This also shows that party offices are used for employments: “The woman who denounced this, came to our office at the start of the year in order to find a job and our office helped her to get a job at a private company in Saranda, where she worked for six months…”
Who is Kokedhima
Since the ‘90s, Koco Kokedhima became known after privatizing several state owned enterprises, thus becoming one of the biggest business people in Albania. In 1997 he entered the world of media when he founded the daily “Shekulli” newspaper, which soon became the biggest one in Albania and held this position for several years. Kokedhima also opened a national radio channel and a TV channel, and also a sport newspaper, a photographic agency, magazines, publishing houses, etc. Besides the media, he also bought a football team. During this period, he started the radio talk show called “How to become a millionaire”. Kokedhima claims that his wealth is estimated to amount to several hundred millions of Euros. Kokedhima is also known as one of the closest friends of the prime minister. Kokedhima entered politics in 2013, when he ran as an MP of the Socialist Party for the south of Albania.
Berisha: The pedophile is Kokedhima’s closest man
Former prime minister and current MP of the Democratic Party, Sali Berisha says that “the pedophile Agron Cane is Kokedhima’s closest man. By using Kokedhima’s power and SP in Saranda, he asks the mother of four orphan children to offer him his daughter for sexual relations in exchange of a job”, Berisha says that after this scandal, “Rama-Kokedhima did everything with police and SP to shut the media up and end this scandal. After they failed, Rama, in violation with every law, sent Kokedhima to put pressure on the young girl during her interrogation at the police of Saranda”.
Berisha criticizes what he considers to be as Rama’s silence: “Although in this super scandal everything had developed the same as in horror films, Rama keeps quiet to convey a message to socialists and common citizens that this is his model of employment and solution to their problems”.
Rama: Evil has no place among us
Immediately after this, prime minister Edi Rama reacted on this event. He stresses the fact that police arrested the suspect and that the office of MP Kokedhima categorically distanced itself. Rama said that the 61 year old was expelled from the Socialist Party, by adding: “For us, evil has no party and no place among us”.
MPs, active in condemning the scandal
MP Albina Deda says that “one must offer money or sexual favors, or to have a serious previous conviction to get a job”, adding: “It’s clear that the state offices, the offices of the Socialist Party have turned into offices of abuse and perversity”.
MP Alban Zeneli says that this phenomenon has turned into a system: “Kokedhima’s assistant, who demands sexual favors from the minor in exchange of a job, is the creature of a system established by Edi Rama”. According to him, “the entire society is irritated and has raised its voice for the dirty stuff taking place in the office of the Socialist Party”.
Analysts offer their insights
Analyst Andi Bushati says that “the terrible scenes of a 61 year old who asks to have sex with a minor in the offices of the Socialist Party, are not only an object of anger for thousands of hopeless unemployed people, who live on the verge of poverty, who want a job and more opportunities in life, but it’s also a reflection of the situation in which we’re in, a great moment of reflection which tells us about our society, for its darkest side and for the weak links that tie the relations between this society with the people that govern it.”
Bushati says that “that part of the declaration issued by Kokedhima, which talks about the woman that has denounced this story, is outrageous. In a perverse manner, the woman’s name is revealed, something which has been done neither by police, nor by the media. They “forget” that she’s the mother of four children, who lives in a small town, where everyone knows everyone. In a more disgusting manner, the declaration says that the woman has been found a job by the SP office before. What does this mean: that she has found the job based on the services that she has offered (a low insinuation)? Or is this being done to show that even now, after the event, with more publicity and attention, people must continue to knock in the local offices of the SP because they can solve their problems there?”.
Analyst, Mero Baza, criticizes the regards that Kokedhima shows for the past of the pedophile and suggests: “Kokedhima should have denounced the crime after he was made aware and hand the criminal to police. After this, he should have offered a strong public apology, not because he was guilty, but because he was responsible for the people that he imposed upon us to govern our fate. The citizens of Saranda have not voted the pervert, neither his career as a military man or his vices as a pedophile, but the Socialist Party. Today, they have no explanation why their party trusted the fate of the citizens to a pervert. Nevertheless, the only thing that makes sense is the public apology. It’s a sign of humbleness and unification with the revolted citizens. The justification with his past as an officer, causes more irritation”.
Baze says that the scandal reveals how power is executed in the Socialist Party’s base. “Power is delegated to several informal offices, which receive letters and complaints and use them for personal power. The scandal turns down what the government has claimed about recruitments at the party’s base, standards of recruitment and quality of those who recruit. The pervert was not an employee of a job center in Saranda, but an employ of Koco’s office, who formally is a volunteer without pay, but who has more power than whoever works in job offices”.
Baze further suggests that “Koco Kokedhima is not to be blamed why a sexual pervert was found among the voluntaries, but he’s responsible for delegating power in an informal way, outside the structures of the state. We have job offices for employment, we have the municipality for complaints and we have police to report corruption… The parallel state of the MP is the start of the problem which fuels the courage to abuse up to this level of perversity”.
Publicist Nidela Hoxha Zenuni told IBNA that “every day we have to deal with such people, in work premises and everywhere else”. “Under the disguise of a normal man, who is often presented as a good man, lie scary monstrosities and perversities”. The publicist says that “pedophiles of such dimensions who circulate in high levels of society, show a high level of sophisticated criminality, and at the same time, an ordinary one”. /ibna/
It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!
Restore freedom: Liberty Dependeth on the Silence of the Law. Through out most laws. Return responsibility to heads of families.
Detroit, Michigan: How Botox Cures ED (men put on a smile)
Is it possible elite male superstars and politicians loading their faces with Botox are actually doing it for a little naughty alternative reason?
Could it be more about the little friend’s function than their mirror image?
That’s actually a long shot theory. But nevertheless, a new study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine has revealed how Botox may actually cure ED… if used in a specific way.
When your prostate’s cells multiply and start to take up the space of your urethra, your urine can no longer pass freely through your urethra.
As a result, the muscles in your bladder start to contract powerfully to propel the urine through your narrowed urethra, and the smooth muscles in your urethra contract equally powerfully to get the urine through.
This creates a permanent uncomfortable feeling of having to urinate and even cramps in your urinary tract.
To treat this, some doctors inject Botox to relax the smooth muscles and prevent them from contracting.
Taiwanese researchers published a study in the journal BJU International in 2006 that tested this treatment on men with enlarged prostates, finding that it could indeed relieve what are called lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
The Canadian researchers then thought that, since many erectile difficulties result from the contraction of smooth muscles in your penis, and since Botox has proved successful to relax smooth muscles in the urethra, wouldn’t Botox also work to relax smooth muscles in your penis to restore your erectile function?
They tested it on a few rats who experienced an improvement in their erectile function, with promising results.
However, Botox is derived from the deadly neurotoxin, botulinum. It works by paralyzing muscles, which is why it works on wrinkles caused by muscles in the face.
You probably don’t warm to the idea of having a deadly poison injected into your manhood. And you don’t have to.
The purpose of feminism is to destroy male sexuality. It's either you or them. Hope you get that message.
Nashville-Davidson, Tennessee: Japanese company manufactures lifelike child sex dolls for paedophiles
'I am helping people express their desires, legally and ethically. It’s not worth living if you have to live with repressed desire'
A Japanese company produces lifelike child sex dolls - claiming they prevent paedophiles from offending.
Shin Takagi has shipped anatomically-correct sex dolls of girls as young as five to clients around the world for more than a decade.
In an interview with The Atlantic, he described how he set up the Japense company Trottla because of his own attraction to children and his conviction they should be protected.
“We should accept that there is no way to change someone’s fetishes,” Mr Takagi said.
“I am helping people express their desires, legally and ethically. It’s not worth living if you have to live with repressed desire.”
Treatments for paedophilia exist, including cognitive-behavioural therapy and chemical castration, along with other interventions intended to suppress urges.
However, a meta-analysis by the Mayo Clinic found the treatments "do not change the paedophile's basic sexual orientation towards children".
Mr Takagi believes the dolls he creates - sent mostly to "men living alone" - save children from sexual abuse.
He said: “I often receive letters from buyers. The letters say, ‘Thanks to your dolls, I can keep from committing a crime.’”
"I hear statements like that from doctors, prep school teachers—even celebrities.”
Michael Seto, a psychologist and sexologist at the University of Toronto, told The Atlantic there were two different types of paedophiles.
Award for Louis Theroux documentary 'A Place for Paedophiles' He said: "For some paedophiles, access to artificial child pornography or to child sex dolls could be a safer outlet for their sexual urges, reducing the likelihood that they would seek out child pornography or sex with real children.
“For others, having these substitutes might only aggravate their sense of frustration.?
1 stick (1/2 cup) unsalted butter, softened, plus more for greasing 1/3 cup brown sugar 1/3 cup granulated sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 2 large eggs 1 1/2 cups plain flour 1 cup digestive biscuit crumbs 1 teaspoon baking powder
Memphis, Tennessee: Michigan 'genital mutilation' case will test our country’s political correctness
Charges of Islamophobia should not be used as an excuse to allow continued violation of little girls.
In February, federal investigators uncovered a Michigan-based network of doctors and others who practice female genital mutilation (FGM) on girls as young as six at medical clinics in the state. FGM is the cutting of a girl’s genitalia with the aim to “purify” her and repress her sexuality. All defendants in the case are members of the Dawoodi Bohra, a religious Muslim group. One of the girls who underwent the procedure was reportedly told that she was going on a “special girls' trip” to “get the germs out.”
While the victim in this case may find justice in the courtroom, their lives and bodies have been irrevocably changed. Survivors of FGM whom I spoke to for my documentary film Honor Diaries tell of the physical and emotional pain that remains long after the abuse. Sexual intercourse and childbirth become horribly painful and traumatic experiences. Women may have chronic urinary tract infections and are often plagued with depression and other invisible scars.
The World Health Organization estimates at least 200 million women today live with the consequences of FGM. In the United States, 507,000 women are at risk or have undergone the procedure. In the U.S., there is a federal statute against the practice and it is criminalized in several states. However, these laws have not prevented families from mutilating their girls or traveling overseas to undergo the process. All that might change.
The arrest and prosecution of the Michigan perpetrators is a groundbreaking moment for women’s rights activists in the United States and globally. I applaud the federal investigators and prosecutors who took a stand against gender-based violence. It is the first national prosecution of an FGM case and many important questions will be raised during the course of the investigation and trial.
Already, defendants attempted (and failed) to receive bond by using their religious freedom as a defense. Defendants asserted the practice should not be classified as FGM, but rather as a religious practice. U.S. Magistrate Elizabeth Stafford denied bond stating that religion would not be used “as a shield” in the case. However, it is likely that as the case continues, religious freedom will be argued again.
I am concerned for the maelstrom which may ensue when the case goes to trial. At that moment, will women’s rights be asserted or will they be diluted in favor of political correctness? In the past, I’ve witnessed the disintegration of women’s rights in favor of political correctness: my film Honor Diaries was censored (in Michigan, actually) when certain groups deemed it “Islamophobic” for bringing up FGM, forced marriage and honor killings. Instead of focusing on the inherent misogyny of these practices, my film was vilified for having difficult conversations about cultural and religious practices.
The first federal FGM case will raise challenging questions. There is a simple metric we can use to evaluate competing claims: culture is no excuse for abuse. No religion or culture should be the impetus for hurting, mutilating or abusing anyone, and our children should be protected. For too long, FGM has been practiced under the radar in the United States. The arrest and prosecution of these individuals is a step in the right direction, but the true test will come at trial: will we allow our political correctness to coax us into complacency? Or will we use this moment to assert our loftiest convictions: that all people are equal and should be treated as such, regardless of their religion and culture? My hope for all women and girls is that we will stand for equality.
Paula Kweskin is an attorney specializing in human rights law. She is the producer of Honor Diaries and the founder/director of the Censored Women’s Film Festival, a response to the censorship she and other filmmakers have received for highlighting women’s rights.
Khmer Rouge terror in Cambodia
Portland, Oregon: 5 simple ways to tighten your vagina!
The first few years of marriage are usually the most blissful. Lots of romance, romantic dates and also lots of sex is what your initial years of marriage or for that matter, relationship looks like. Your man will do anything possible to give you happiness. But the happiness won’t last long if you do not take care of your health, especially your sexual health. Initially sex is fun, smooth and full of pleasure. But if the sex happens too much after a point of time, a woman’s vagina starts becoming loose. Vaginal looseness is a common problem among several women. While some just ignore this, others desperately look for solutions to this problem. Women with vaginal looseness often also struggle with low confidence and self esteem. Two of the other major reasons behind this problem are also pregnancy and childbirth.
For those women who have been struggling with this problem, there is absolutely no reason to worry. If pregnancy, delivery or anything else has made your vagina loose, there are several ways that will help you tighten your vagina. We have listed down several tips that will help you tighten your vagina naturally.
1. Following a proper and strict diet:
The first and foremost thing to tighten your vagina is tighten follow a proper and good diet. If you change your food habits, that will make a huge difference to your overall health. Your pelvic floor will become stronger with a strict diet. You need to have foods that have estrogens in them like pomegranates, soybeans, carrots, apples, berries and so on. Your inner muscles will go a long way if you improve your diet. First improve your inner health, only then the outer health will get better.
2. Kegel exercises:
Kegel exercises are one of the most popular ways of tightening your vagina. This is also one of the most recommended ways. These exercises have also proven to be a lot helpful to women who have been facing this problem. The clench and release exercise is what constitutes the Kegel exercise. The pelvic floor muscles become stronger because of this and thus help in tightening your vagina. To do this exercise, the first thing that you need to do is find your pelvic muscles. While urinating, stop mid way and try feeling your muscles. Once you have found it, you can tighten them by contracting for just about five seconds. Contract for five seconds and then relax for another five. Continue this procedure as often as possible.
3. Squat exercise:
Squatting exercise has proved to be fruitful for people looking for a toned lower body. Squat has also always been a part of gym routines. But not many may be aware that squats are also good for vagina tightening. For those who have not been introduced to this exercise, squat can be done simply. You just need to stand with your legs spread and you have to go down like you are sitting on a bench. Go up, stand for some time and then again sit down. While doing so, also ensure that you push your hip outwards. You can improve your vaginal muscles by squatting. So with one form of exercise, you will have two benefits. One is tightening vaginal muscles and the second is a toned body.
4. Pelvic stretch:
Like the name suggests, this one is specifically done only to strengthen the pelvic muscles. It is pretty easy to do the pelvic stretch. You need to sit on the edge of a chair and spread your legs. Keep your hands on your knees and point your elbows outside. Bend towards your ankles and spread your arms. You need to fold your pelvis area inside. This exercise is one of the most effective ways of strengthening vaginal muscles and tightening your vagina.
Now who doesn’t know about Yoga, nobody right! Yoga has been proven to be one of the most effective ways for a good mental and physical health. Practice yoga on a regular basis and that will help you tighten your vaginal muscles. Yoga has several pelvic floor exercises like the Bridge Pose that are excellent for tightening pelvic muscles. Deep breathing will also help a great deal. You can do these several times a day to get a tighter vagina within a short period of time.
Apart from all the exercises what we mentioned above, you also get several gels that will help you. But you need to get these gels only after consulting a doctor. Do not apply or use nay medicines without being prescribed. Also, all these tips that we have listed needs to be a part of your routine every single day only then can you expected goo results. Do these exercises daily at least for 15 minutes and see how your problems are solved. You too can now enjoy a healthy sex life just like you did back then.
The future of the world will be that it is ruled by China, and Western men will be the sex slaves of Chinese women. Because Chinese men have big brains and small penises, but Chinese women want big ones.
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Climate for conflict
Daud Mohamed lives a fragile existence, wholly dependent on rain.
At his homestead in Somalia where we camped one night, his nine children were busy with chores as the sun was coming up: feeding the baby goat, collecting drinking water an hour’s walk away, and mixing up porridge in plastic mugs for breakfast. Mohamed has managed to keep a sense of normalcy at his rural homestead a two-hour drive from the nearest village. But he said the situation is anything but normal.
“I’ve never seen this kind of a drought that has killed our animals. It’s the worst one,” Mohamed said, his grey goatee making him look older than his 45 years. He has just one goat and a sickly calf left, he added.
Down the hill from Mohamed’s house is a clearing where he used to grow vegetables for his family and grass for his goats and cows. The soil is now dried into a wide latticework of deep cracks. At one end of the clearing stand two large trees. Many branches have been unceremoniously cut for firewood, leaving jagged stubs. But their broad trunks attest to their survival: droughts typically hit this region every few years, so these trees have withstood many lean seasons.
Mohamed walked us to the far end of the beige expanse and looked glumly at the skeleton of one of his last cows. The unforgiving sun had already bleached is ribs white. “They didn’t get enough food, and people were depending on animal’s milk and meat. If animals died, then human beings will also die,” Mohamed said.
Mohamed said he thinks that a current law in Somaliland that bans cutting trees and charcoal production, is a good idea.
“Those trees used to help our animals. Now it looks like a desert,” he said. But he recognizes that planning ahead -- even as a single father with a brood ranging in age from toddler to teenager -- can be a luxury.
“If you have a family and you lose your livestock and there is drought, you will do anything to feed the children,” Mohamed said.
That is part of the reason why those two last trees on his parched pasture are starting to look like his only hope, he said.
Across the global scientific community, there’s broad consensus about the reality of climate change. The Department of Defense first highlighted the security threat of global warming in 2010, calling it “an accelerant” for conflict. Yet with his tweets and executive orders, President Donald Trump has catapulted climate change skepticism into the mainstream. But for many people on the planet, like Daud Mohamed, the debate is moot: life is fundamentally changing right now.
More than six million Somalian people are currently in urgent need of assistance, according to the United Nations, which has called the refugee crisis the worst humanitarian crisis since World War II.
Most Americans first heard of Somalia when the country suffered a severe famine in the late 1980s.
The country once again made international headlines because of an incident known as Black Hawk Down in 1993, when 18 U.S. soldiers were killed in the streets of Mogadishu. The killings were later portrayed in an Academy Award-winning film of the same name.
The country occasionally makes headlines because of the pirates who trawl the coastline awaiting foreign cargo ships that they can hold hostage for massive ransoms. On land, reporters regularly recount the suffering of communities who still live under the ruthless rule of al-Shabab, a militant group aligned with Al Qaeda.
My reporting partner, photographer Nichole Sobecki, and I came to Somalia to look into another grim phenomenon, however. Scientists now believe that Somalia is one of the most vulnerable places in the world due to climate change. News stories about the war-torn country rarely highlights this link, but much of the violence in Somalia stems from environmental issues and resource scarcity -- and those underlying causes are only getting worse.
“With these weather patterns, Somalia or Somalis will not survive,” said Somali environmental activist Fatima Jibrell. “Maybe the land, a piece of desert called Somalia, will exist on the map of the world, but Somalis cannot survive.”
Yet just 40 years ago, Somalia seemed to be on a different trajectory.
The UN held their first environmental conference in Stockholm in 1972, but it wasn’t until the late 1980s that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed and the science of climate change started to be discussed as a global issue.
However, Somalia’s leaders had a deep appreciation for their fragile relationship with the environment starting in the 1970s after a punishing drought. At the time, the government saw that safeguarding their natural resources had to be a priority. A quarter of a million nomadic people lost their livestock and became desperately poor in 1974 and 1975, according to Somalia expert Ioan Lewis. It was essentially the equivalent of going bankrupt, having your car stolen and your house burning down all at once. For these people, life became focused on survival.
With support from the U.S. during the Cold War, Somali President Siad Barre created the National Range Agency to manage the country’s natural resources. The Range Agency’s leaders had the ear of the president, the largest budget of any government department, and eventually more than 2,000 people on the payroll.
One of the foreign experts drawn to this work at the National Range Agency was a British ecologist named Dr. Murray Watson.
Watson had learned to fly while studying wildebeest migrations in the Serengeti for his doctorate at Cambridge University. He moved to Kenya, bought a Piper Super Cub two-seater plane, and began tinkering with a rig of measuring sticks, an altimeter and a camera to take aerial photographs to document wildlife.
Watson arrived in Mogadishu in 1978, just as the Range Agency was starting its work. Through the rest of the 1970s and ‘80s, Watson led a small team of scientists in carrying out the most comprehensive land survey of Somalia in the country’s history. They crisscrossed the country by Landrover and bush plane, photographing and studying the environment at more than a thousand sites.
But in 1991, that momentum came to an abrupt halt. Rebels toppled President Barre and then turned on each other, plunging the country in civil war. Thousands of people were killed in street battles in the city. The rebels looted and destroyed businesses and government buildings.
But Watson somehow managed to make his way across the city amid the firefights and rescue the agency’s maps, photographs, and field notes. He snuck some 15,000 environmental documents out of the country in a bush plane.
As Range Agency staff fled the chaos and accomplished Somali scientists ending up in refugee camps, they left behind everything they held dear, including university diplomas, wedding photos and children’s books.
“We always thought we would go back,” said Dr. Abdullahi Ahmed Karani. He served as the first and longtime director of the National Range Agency, and he fled Somalia in 1991. He eventually settled in Baltimore and is now almost 80 years old.
As the Somali government collapsed and terrorism became an even larger problem, no one could enforce the ban on charcoal production and deforestation. Illegal fishing and dumping of toxic waste increased as foreign companies took advantage of Somalia’s unpatrolled waters. Meanwhile, as Somalia’s climate began to change, increasingly frequent droughts made people even more vulnerable to armed groups like Al-Shabab.
In contrast, Watson’s land survey provides a rare, detailed picture of a country before the past 26 years of conflict and environmental destruction.
But in 2008, the conflict caught up to Watson. While conducting another environmental survey, Watson and his Kenyan colleague Patrick Amukhuma were ambushed and kidnapped. Watson has been missing ever since, and what happened to him remains a mystery to his family to this day.
But Watson’s work has lived on. The Somali government has begun finding its footing after a quarter-century of war, and researchers believe Watson’s land survey -- now housed in a farmhouse in Britain -- could help show precisely how and why the country’s environment changed. It could also possibly offer clues about what can be done to restore it.
But many Somalis have already decided Somalia is no longer a viable home.
Another terrible drought hit in 2011, sparking a mass exodus. According to the UN, a quarter of a million people died and almost a million more crossed into neighboring countries. Tens of thousands of those fleeing their homes finally found relief in Kenya at one of the world’s largest refugee camps, Dadaab.
When their farm failed, Mohamed Abukar and his wife, Habiba, took their two young daughters and walked for 27 days to the camp across desolate southern Somalia -- land that in Watson’s old photographs appears verdant and green, with one of the country’s old-growth forests and even a national park. Today, the region is controlled by al-Shabab, who have deforested much of it to supply their lucrative charcoal trade, according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization.
Now a father of five, including two young sons, Abukar knows his family can’t stay in the refugee camp in Kenya forever. But he also can’t imagine returning to Somalia.
Abukar said that in Somalia, al-Shabab recruits boys at the madrassas or religious schools.
“I am fearful that they will be recruited. First, there is no school other than those run and controlled by [al-Shabab],” he said.
“They can radicalize you because you are poor and don’t have anything,” Abukar added, explaining that extremists sometimes block aid from reaching these areas to coerce people into supporting them.
Indeed, aid agencies could have alleviated the suffering from the drought. But al-Shabab wanted to leave people vulnerable, “to attract the hungry people, knowing too well that people facing starvation will fall for anything,” Abukar said. He told us this fear of starvation is one of the concerns that runs through his mind at night while his family sleeps.
“Even if Somalia has security problems, if someone has to die, it’s best if he dies while in good shape other than dying of hunger,” he said.
Abukar vows he’ll never return to Somalia. Since the war broke out in 1991, millions more have also left, making new lives for themselves elsewhere in eastern Africa or boarding rickety boats bound for the West at the mercy of smugglers.
Environmental activist Fatima Jibrell had left Somalia too. She moved to the U.S., but decided to come back to lead Adeso, the organization she founded in 1991. Her organization focuses on creating jobs and rehabilitating the degraded land. But she questions whether that approach will ultimately work, blaming desperation that has been exacerbated by a changing environment and dwindling resources.
“It’s going to take us to wars where we kill and maim each other. Sadly, I think that is the way we will choose. Not intelligently, but by not doing anything -- that’s the choice we will make,” said Jibrell. “The other choice is harder, but it’s doable. It comes with intelligent people coming together.”
Jibrell’s feelings about the future are peppered with both optimistic and grim predictions. But she said she is committed to her work, even as she approaches 70.
“We are alive, and we are thinking beings. And it’s not in our nature, butea superba remarkable herb I think, to give up,” Jibrell reflected. “Nobody likes to die sitting.”
Why images of decapitation? This is to show that some people have real problems. Other than the issues of feminism, such as sexist language or manspreading.